THE HAGUE, 1954
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict
The foundationaìs of the 1954 Hague Convention were laid in two previous conferences of 1899 and 1907.
However, the widespread and massive destruction of cultural heritage during WW II, and the request for more detailed policies by many countries on a global scale, speeded up the process the organization of an ad hoc convention.
THE 1954 CONVENTION
THE 1999 SECOND PROTOCOL Criminal acts committed against cultural property in the course of the many conflicts that took place in 1980s and 1990s highlighted the need to improve the 1954 Hague Convention. Therefore, a second protocol was issued in 1999 providing the following updates:
"... any damage to cultural property, irrespective of the people it belongs to, is a damage to the cultural heritage of all humanity, because every people contributes to the world's culture..."
THE BLUE SHIELDS
One of the main practical outcomes of the Hague convention is the establishment of the International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS) and works as the cultural equivalent of the Red Cross to provide an emergency response to cultural property at risk from armed conflict.