Numerous dams have been built along the Nile river. The famous Aswan Dam and Merowe Dams, are probably those which caused the greatest and irreparable damage to the environment and cultural heritage of the region in the coming years.

While official data on the loss of cultural and natural heritage are not available, recent research suggest that they included hundreds of villages, thousands of people displaced and hectares of forest.

The papers below provide an introduction to the impact of the GERD on cultural heritage.

Gonzales-Rubial, A. and Fernandez Martinez, V.M. 2007. Exhibiting Cultures of Contact: A Museum for Benishangul-Gumuz Ethiopia, Stanford Journal of Archaeology, 5, 61-90.

González-Ruibal, A. 2006. The dream of reason: An archaeology of the failures of modernity in Ethiopia. Journal of social archaeology, 6, 175-201.

Cunliffe, E. L., De Gruchy, M. W., & Stammitti, E. 2012. How to Build a Dam and Save Cultural Heritage. International Journal of Heritage in the Digital Era, 1, 221-226.

Zaina, F. and Tapete, D. 2022. Documenting and monitoring the impact of dams to cultural heritage from space. Tuning satellite data collection to meet rescue archaeology needs, Remote Sensing, 14, 1-28.